This meta-synthesis investigates the conditions that support teacher innovation in schools. Twenty-seven articles that report on studies using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology were selected for this analysis. The articles were analyzed using Hargreaves’s and Fullan’s concept of “professional capital” as a framework, and nine emergent themes were developed. Most significant among the themes were the impact of teacher attitudes and beliefs, and the importance of school structure on how teachers initiated and sustained innovations in teaching practice. This research is limited by the ability to generalize results. This limitation is due to the variety of methodologies and sample sizes employed by studies used for the meta-synthesis. This article offers a discussion of the importance of local adaptation in supporting teachers to develop and sustain innovations that lead to positive school change.